As the number of older adults who live at home throughout later life increases, it is important to understand what makes a community livable—or “age-friendly”—for an aging population. We do not adequately understand dimensions of community participation in relation to older adults’ overall well-being, and current conceptualizations do not always reflect lived experiences of older adults. This multiple case study employs GPS mapping methods, interviews, and naturalistic observation to obtain an empirically grounded model of community participation for older adults. Findings include varied temporal patterns and unique spatial characteristics of participation; these findings suggest a need to re-conceptualize a community’s “age-friendliness” though a lens of older adults’ engagement in daily activities. Instead of conceptualizing age-friendliness as a list of features available in a community, these findings highlight the need for a more dynamic understanding of older adults’ ability to participate in the necessary and chosen activities of everyday life, thereby maximizing well-being.
The rapidly growing elderly population is a worldwide concern due to the added pressure on public resources and the associated difficulties with supporting these vulnerable members of society. In the UK, ten million people were over sixty-five years old in 2010, and this is projected to increase to nineteen million by 2020. Over two million households are considered to be in fuel poverty and living in unsatisfactory conditions, and many of those people struggling to afford their energy bills are elderly. Fuel poverty is proven to lead to decreased health, quality of life, and wellbeing. Often, assisted- and independent-living features are considered separately from sustainable and energy-efficient design strategies. In this article, the authors argue that due to the overlaps between the concepts and their benefits, these should be considered holistically in the design of housing solutions for the elderly in order to include all key components that help to support health and wellbeing: spatial quality, easy mobility, adaptability, environmental comfort, energy efficiency, and smart technologies for domestic health care monitoring. The Nottingham H.O.U.S.E. in Nottingham, UK, an exemplary sustainable home, was used as a vehicle to explore this approach. A multi-objective methodology was used: spatial and environmental standard parameters were compared and aligned with users’ needs as gathered from interviews and empirical data. Significant reductions of 61 percent of energy demand when compared to a typical dwelling for elderly users were achieved, with comfort standards maintained full-time and spatial requirements adapted to support independent living.
Improved longevity has provided extended grandparenthood for many older adults. While close grandparent-grandchild (GP-GC) relationships may significantly impact grandchildren’s lives, the extent to which grandparental values are shared by their grandchildren remains unclear. Less clear is whether GP-GC relationships influence grandchildren’s values or in what areas grandchildren share their values with grandparents. This study, based on responses from an Institutional Review Board-approved online survey (N = 470), examined the degree of similarity between grandparents and grandchildren in seven value domains (educational, moral, religious, political, social, leisure, and community). The results revealed that adult grandchildren saw their educational values as most similar to those of their grandparents; leisure and political values were least similar. Also revealed were gender effects; granddaughters more than grandsons perceived that their educational and social values were significantly closer to those of their grandparents. Grandmothers had more significant influences on their grandsons’ religious values than did grandfathers, while grandfathers had more significant influences on their grandsons’ leisure values than did grandmothers. An association between GP-GC closeness and value transmission was found. Interpretations and implications of the findings as they promote active grandparental involvement are discussed.